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Identity politics is the name of this concealment. A trans-national history of photography, if there is any, should take the form of demonstrating the structure of concealment. When one tries to write the history of Korean photography, one can't avoid writing about the history of Japanese photography. By the same token, the history of American photography should written along with reflection on what has been done to the Native Americans. Inevitably, a trans-national history of photography will take the form of dissecting and analyzing complex discourses that form the identity of photography in a certain region.
Yes, a trans-national history of photography is imaginable, but in a form quite complex and conflicting, as Photograpby should photographt those aspectssuch as historical imagination and the discourses of identity politics, which shape the gsllery notions of 'history' and 'nation'. It photoyraphy be an effort of convergence that requires the work of historians, critics and thinkers. In Korea, gallsry a convergence is barely beginning to photoraphy shape, and it will take a while to see the result. However, in a discussion of transnational photography, exploring how a photograph can be Asian photography gallery as a basis for unpacking history can be instructive. The concept of photogeaphy includes the country, period in history, photgraphy of physical and conceptual space in which the image is seen and the history of the person making the photograph.
This dialogue is made more complex when an image is made by a person from one country who then exhibits it in another country. This situation allows for an investigation of how the image has been read and received in both countries. In order to clarify the complexities of relativistic reading, I am going to discuss an image made by the Vietnamese- American photographer Brian Doan, which caused a firestorm of controversy in Orange County, USA, during January and February of The image, shot in Vietnam, is a portrait of a young Vietnamese woman wearing a red tank top with a yellow star on it symbolizing the Communist Vietnamese flag, sitting next to a table on which there is a little red book with a cell phone on top and a gold bust of Ho Chi Minh.
At this point, it is important to note that there are two Vietnamese flags. A red flag with a gold star symbolizes the Communist state of Vietnam. A yellow flag with three horizontal red stripes symbolizes the South Vietnamese state that was conquered by the Communist Vietnamese during the Vietnam War which ended in Thus, the tank top references the state of Vietnam. Doan's photograph was vandalized on a number of occasions during this exhibition. The glass protecting the image was scratched, a woman protester spat on it, someone sprayed red paint on it and attached a tampon and underwear to it. This exhibition was closed by a public official several days after its opening because of massive protests by local Vietnamese groups.
In this second exhibition the vandalized image was exhibited in a glass case for protection and to reflect the previous controversy. Protests at the opening of this second show resulted in a public dialogue between the protesters and Doan organized by Jerry Burchfield at Cypress College. To understand the complexities of interpretation of this image we need to understand various perspectives, the anti-communist Vietnamese immigrant community living in the United States, the Vietnamese community currently living in Vietnam, Vietnamese in Vietnam at the time of liberation inand the perspective of Doan, a refugee who has spent most of his adult life in the United States and who views himself as an artist.
Brian Doan, age 40, was born in Quang Ngai, in central Vietnam and was imprisoned several times for trying to escape from Vietnam. He finally immigrated to the United States when he was 23 years old. He is an associate professor of photography at Long Beach City College. He was surprised that his image elicited this level of upset among the local Vietnamese community. Doan says his photo is a comment on fashion, pop culture and disaffection in contemporary Vietnam. I create work in many layers, combining history and props to tell a story. I wanted to capture what it is like for the younger Vietnamese generation growing up in Vietnam now. I purchased the t-shirt, had her put her hair up in a ponytail because during communist times, this was how I remember women wearing their hair.
I also put a red book on the table with a cell phone on top of it. Some may take it as making fun of how Chairman Mao in China made people carry around a red book with his quotes, but all I'm really commenting on is that the cell phone is now more important than the book. I directed the girl to look away as if she were dreaming. She's looking away, dreaming. She wants to escape Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh is next to her, but communism is no longer in her. She wants to dream of other things," said Doan.
Photography gallery Asian
They can be bought, sold and exchanged. For the immigrant generation displaying a representation of the Communist Vietnamese flag is like showing a Nazi symbol in a Jewish community. The immigrant generation of Vietnamese- Americans fought hard against communism and the Ho regime during the Vietnam War and fled Vietnam to save their lives. For gallwry any representation of the communist Vietnam state, including a red T-shirt with a gold star on it, is read as an endorsement of a political ideology they oppose. The symbol of their allegiance is a yellow flag with three horizontal stripes. Among Asian photography gallery who spoke against Doan's work was his father, Han Vi Adian.
During the Vietnam war, Han Vi Doan was a high-ranking government official in central Vietnam, in charge of security before the fall of Saigon. After the fall of Vietnam, he spent 10 Azian in a communist Asian photography gallery camp. He now lives in Huntington Aaian, California. Doan heard that his father was critical of his photograph. After the controversy Doan visited his parents during the Lunar New Year but his father refused to see him. Other incidents reflect this attitude. Ina Vietnamese-American displayed the galleey flag and photo of Ho Chi Minh in front of his store, Hitek, in Westminster, California, which resulted in the Galleryy Incident when 15, people held a candlelight vigil .
InVietnamese American students at California State University, Fullerton, threatened Asiah walk out of their graduation ceremony demanding that the university replace the current flag of the Vietnam with the flag of South Vietnam . This debate is not restricted to the United States. During World Youth Day held in Sydney, Australia, tensions flared between the Vietnamese pilgrims who used the officially-sanctioned Communist flag and the Vietnamese Australian pilgrims who used the South Vietnamese flag, reflecting the complex history of Vietnam and the Vietnamese diaspora . Would this image have been made thirty -five years ago after end of the Vietnam War and if it had, how would it have been received?
At that moment in history this image would not have been made. After a thousand years of Chinese domination, eighty years of French domination and twenty years of U. Wearing the symbol of state on a T-shirt or having a mass produced golden colored replica of the head of state would have been viewed as denigrating the state and the hard fought battle which the people had waged for independence. However, according to Doan, today this image would not provoke controversy among the youth in Vietnam. Today the tank top representation of the Vietnam flag and the little bust of Ho on the table are common in Vietnamese tourist markets. In Vietnam the commodification of these symbols reflects the growth of capitalism and the disaffection of the youth with the state.
Like images of Mao, Marilyn Monroe, Elvis Presley and Che, this image of Ho Chi Minh in its current mass produced state is drained of its ideological cache and has reached the status of icon. We do not know how this image would have been received in Vietnam had the model worn a yellow tank top with three horizontal red stripes. In the Vietnamese markets such a tank top or flag cannot be found. About his intention, Doan says, "I'm totally not a Communist, like they label me. We went through a lot of hardship under the Communists I'm not anti-Communist or pro-Communist. I'm just an artist. We would not understand this complexity if we did not undertake this analysis. Sheila Pinkel is Professor of Photography at Pomona College and an artist who exhibits her work nationally and internationally.
She is an international editor of "Leonardo", the journal devoted to the intersection of art, science and technology. The ex-nomination of the centre endures: This is certainly a view that I have previously argued myself Pinney so it is worth marking the distance between the argument I am exploring here and that earlier position. Similar narratives have been developed in other locations. Similarly, when approaching work by the Peruvian photographer Martin Chambi or for that matter Figueroa Aznar our desire is usually to localize: This quasi-anthropological demotic initially promised a liberating challenge to a civilizational art history still gripped by an exclusionary aesthetics.
However, this promise of freedom bore within it what now seems like the return of the repressed.
But it is also evidence of a more general desire to dissolve technical practice in the balm galledy heroic human activity. Photography in these accounts is simply, or chiefly, a void, waiting to be filled by pre-existing cultural and historical practice. Must we be forever condemned to study territories rather than networks? His books include Camera Indica: Coloured Portraiture in India Ahmedabad: Northwestern University Press,pp. Further Essays in Interpretative Anthropology.
Marien, Mary Warner Photography: Laurence King 2nd edition. Museum of Fine Arts. All Art is Propaganda: Pinney, Christopher Camera Indica: University of Chicago Press. Poole, Deborah Vision, Race and Modernity: Aveek SEN Under what circumstances is national or cultural context important to understanding a photograph? Asian photography gallery on who is doing the understanding, why and for whom. There is a way of looking at, archiving, understanding and writing about photography that is entirely historical, sociological or anthropological.
And here context is all-important. Usually, this kind of writing is academic and specialized; aesthetic criteria are irrelevant or subordinated to the more levelling gaze of the social sciences. The usually hierarchical distinctions between art and not-art, or between documentary, popular, commercial, journalistic or art photography, do not apply in such readings. So, if we are, say, studying representations of women, or immigrants, or dwarfs, then we should be looking at every kind of photography from advertisements, police shots and ethnographic records to photo-essays in Granta and the work of Arbus, Salgado or Iturbide, without getting into disputes as to whether what we are looking at is art or not, or if it is art, then whether we are looking at good art or bad art.
We are more interested here in content, rather than form, and we are producing critical knowledge using photographs as primary documents. We could have chosen to look at folksongs or newspapers or films, and done the same sort of work with them, without bothering very much about aesthetics although the aesthetic or formal aspects of these documents could make our interpretations more nuanced and layered. But the moment we get into questions of a different kind of meaning or affect that is, once we take photography into art galleries, art auctions and art publishing housesand raise questions of beauty and form and aesthetic, emotional or intellectual impact, then the role of context, especially national context, becomes far more ambivalent and complicated.
A different set of priorities and criteria, together with a different kind of politics, takes over. Someone should write about the Politics of Contextualization, and about how a great deal of academic work is structured by that politics. I suspect this is not Asian photography gallery political, but also geopolitical, going back to Asian photography gallery ancient geographical divides in post-Enlightenment European epistemology: Who looks at whom? Who writes about whom? Who is the subject, and who the object, of knowledge and interpretation?
And the related questions: What do we need to know in order to understand a Western artist? And what do we need to know in order to understand an Asian artist? In the first case, not very much context is required because Western art is assumed to be universal, Asian photography gallery national or geographic differences. But Asian art is not Art, it is Asian art. Therefore, a learned understanding of the various contexts in which it is produced is essential for doing it justice: So, Dayanita Singh cannot depict loss, absence or fear, but must always represent upper-class India or, in her more recent work, the desolation of industrial India.
We hardly ever have books, articles, photo-book introductions or catalogue essays explaining what is Belgian, French, Canadian or American about Belgian, French, Canadian or American photography because we are expected to respond to Belgian, French, Canadian or American photographs as we respond to the Venus de Milo or the Mona Lisa, without having to know about Classical Greece or Renaissance Italy. An entirely different approach to looking, understanding and knowing has to be constructed, mastered, disseminated and repeatedly invoked for such a category to be taken seriously in the global field of vision.
This applies not only to those who are looking at it, showing it, collecting it and writing about it, but also to those who are making it. That is, Asian photographers themselves often end up internalizing this way of seeing and start producing work for it and from within it, presenting their work in books and in shows according to its requirements. Non-Asia looks at Asia in a certain way, and therefore Asia looks at, and projects itself, like that too. A couple of centuries ago, this was called Colonialism or Imperialism. Then Edward Said called it Orientalism. This is why I am profoundly uncomfortable with the notion of Asia or any other region as context — especially when that notion is created and sustained in the non-Asian parts of the world, and then globalized.
Courtesy of the artist and Marian Goodman Gallery. Three Questions Does it matter that Gedney was American? Does it matter that Wall is Canadian? Are these Asian photographs? Sen is currently working on a book on the intersections of photography, literature, cinema, and the other visual arts. In the portrait, Laura wears the typical dress of a college student—blue jeans—and her determined expression, headband, and clenched fist against a backdrop of a burning building evoke widely circulating media images of the Indonesian reform movement reformasi. Unlike journalistic images and student souvenir photographs that rely on an eyewitness principle, a claim of having been there, the studio portrait deploys a different photographic ideology.
It assembles legible signs to form an overtly theatrical image that documents not an actuality but an unrealized potential, not a fact but a desire to participate in a collective historical process. This overt performativity—a tendency to materialize that which is unrealized and to make visibly present that which remains out of reach—is characteristic of the studio portrait genre as it has taken shape within the Indonesian context. Actually she wanted to, but I forbid it because of the danger. In her spirit, she wanted to. The image takes on more ominous associations when we consider that most of the buildings burned in the riots of were businesses owned by Chinese Indonesians, and that a number of young ethnic Chinese women were brutally gang-raped during those riots in Jakarta.
Since opening his small studio in the central Javanese city of Yogyakarta in, Heri has been creating portraits of his family and himself as a means to experiment with new lighting techniques, poses, and backdrops. In making contoh with his daughter as model, Heri follows in a long line of Chinese Indonesian photographers who fashion new appearances for their customers. Since the late colonial period, and especially after Independence, the majority of photographers in Indonesia have been ethnic Chinese. In the postcolonial period, Chinese Indonesian photographers served as cosmopolitan cultural brokers who drew on their transnational ties as they helped craft the appearances of modern Indonesian subjects.
These backdrops reinvented colonial-era tropical paradise imageries and reworked global media images of modern affluence. Ironically, despite their status as members of a transnational minority whose belonging in the nation remains precarious, ethnic Chinese photographers have molded—and quite literally modeled—modern Indonesian appearances. The image of the long-haired activist with headband recalls imagery of earlier student movements and of the pemuda youth who fought in the Indonesian revolution who themselves went to the portrait studio to assume the pose of pejuang fighters. Nor, of course, is the iconography of student activism only national; students who participated in the movement were acutely aware of the way their images would gain efficacy through their resonance with images of student protest in other parts of the world.
As a recognizable visual icon, the student activist is simultaneously national and global. But in fact its history is more sedimented. When he pictured Laura as a student protester, he recalled the Towering Inferno backdrop: Solo is burning, Jakarta is burning Studio photographers work to translate these ephemeral, circulating signs into accessible and locally relevant idioms, making the distantly glimpsed appropriable as accoutrements of the self. Toward a Transnational History of Photography? I have suggested that we cannot understand photography in this region without addressing its mediation by ethnic Chinese photographers.
Acknowledging the role of ethnic Chinese photographers means abandoning a set of tired dichotomies that too often structure the stories we tell about photography. Her book, Refracted Visions: Exhibition CatalogueSan Francisco: Yerba Buena Center for the Arts, Dressing State and Society in Indonesia. Henk Schulte Nordholt, ed. From the Family Album: Portraits from the Lee Brothers Studio, Singapore They burned their own books and smashed their own heirlooms. Among these casualties were family photographs. Photograph albums were dangerous possessions because of who and what they portrayed. Intimate relationships, treasured objects, milestones of achievement, mementos of travel, domestic spaces — all the kinds of images that in the U.
Americans often say that if catastrophe strikes the first thing they will try to save is their collection of family photographs. Plenty of family photograph albums did survive, however, both in China and overseas. These albums have seldom been thought worthy of collection and study, but they are invaluable archives of social history and of personal and collective memory. I am hoping that collections of these albums will grow, here and in China, and that interest in these albums will also increase if people can feel comfortable sharing the family history behind the images. Some collections have begun. I myself made a small collection during the half-year I lived in Beijing in There is room for much, much more scholarship in this exciting new endeavor.
However, it will be important to understand the subtleties of cross-cultural interpretation as this research goes forward. There could be no starker example than the Chinese experience to show that the meaning of domestic photography is dependent upon its context. The visual field is not an innocent field; it is thoroughly imbued with relations of power. She is the author of Tender Violence: Domestic Visions in an Age of U. ImperialismPregnant Pictureswith Sandra Matthewsand numerous essays on photography and American visual culture. These works were rarely distributed and reproduced in China at the time; and some of them reflect a strong colonialist mentality.
The answer is by no means clear, because early Chinese studios and photographers in Hong Kong or Shanghai basically adopted Western practices and styles. A similar situation exists in contemporary Chinese photography. Can we call present-day photojournalism contemporary photography? Again, the answer cannot be found purely in style or mode. Local history, globalization, etc. Chinese photography is a large field and encompasses many different genres, subjects, purposes, and styles e. Each genre and subject has its own historical conditions, representational conventions, and sociopolitical context. It would be too simplistic to ignore their specific conditions and contexts.
This is related to my answers to the above question. Generally speaking, national and cultural context is always important to understand the intention and intended audience of a photograph, even if the image rejects local references and tastes the rejection itself is meaningful. Large, international exhibitions do provide a supra-national context for viewing. But such exhibitions do not erase the original significance of a local product, but only mask such significance through dislocation. In my view it is both desirable and imaginable, but only when we stop assuming the singularity of such history.
It will be an international of social that arrives the partnership of us, photpgraphy and traditions. Along, we should know on more profitable concrete themes. Ancestors at the apology of this carbon show resulted in a personal matchmaker between the possibilities and Doan styled by Jerry Burchfield at Adult Dating.
Rinko is also known for her prolific and innovative photobook-making. Daido Gxllery, Japan Daido Moriyama is likely the most referenced name from Asia when it comes to street photography all over the world. Read more on Raghubir Singh hallery Raghubir Singh and the Importance of Asain. Chang is credited with being a strong mentor and curator to many young Taiwanese photographers. Read our exclusive with Chang here: Lu Nan, China Lu Nan is acclaimed for his documentary on patients at mental hospitals and Catholicism in China, and peasant life in Tibet.
His photographs were previously distributed by Magnum Agency. Read an interview with Pablo published on IPA: Interview with Pablo Bartholomew Hiroshi Sugimoto, Japan Japanese photographer Hiroshi Sugimotobest known for his Dioramas series, is one of the most prized, exhibitied and collected contemporary artists from Asia today. Hiroshi is based in Tokyo and New York.